HomeAboutTech & BusinessLIFESTYLEPhotography/FashionPOETRY LIFESTYLE Gender and Women Leadership March 14, 2017
According to researchers, in the relationship between charisma and gender, charisma is viewed by scholars as having an emotional component. Hence, gender issues are expected to arise since women are arguably viewed as the emotional gender, having been socialized into roles related to motherhood, nurturing, compassion and so forth.
Thus Fisher argues that because of emotionality, charismatic women might not be viewed in the same light as men. Manipulate, seduction, and deceit are gloomy sides of charisma and work differently in male and female. Female leaders are a bit more patient than men, more sympathetic and empathetic. The motherly role, of loving and caring helps in going the extra mile that men lack. Women are more honest than men due to the innate feeling of not wanting to be ashamed in public; hence they aspire to do things in the right way. With these qualities which women have, when they become leaders they tend to win the hearts of people who normally want to feel respected and cared for and these qualities also help foster teamwork and maintenance.
Gender matters because at the start of the field of organizational leadership studies, there was the Great Man Theory and with it the prime focus on what we can learn from great male leaders in History. Earlier leadership theories were criticized for being too masculine in nature and focus. From 1990s, there has been a certain feminization of leadership studies through which feminine characteristics of care and strategic advantage for organizational effectiveness and well being. Transformational leadership has also been acclaimed to fit into this wave of seeing feminine traits and behaviors as a leadership advantage.
There also has been a critical view of gender stereotypes that female leaders face in their career often related to child bearing and rearing duties as well as societal and cultural structures across many organizations and countries. Consideration needs to be put on whether gender differences should be focused on the body (that is male/female) or both. If the question is on equality, a lot needs to be done to unpack genders stereotypes in relation to modern society, organizations and leadership, as well as ascertain whether gender is indeed of such importance to leadership. According to researches since 1970’s on the differences between male and female leaders, there is no evidence that exists to suggest that female leaders are more or less effective than male leaders and are indeed consistently different in traits and behaviors compared to male leaders. According to (Eagly and Johnson, 1990) and (Van Engen 2001) findings showed that female leaders do not necessarily fall into the stereotypical assumptions of feminine versus masculine leadership behaviors. They were therefore not found to be more interpersonally or less oriented male leaders. This study and studies on transformational leadership showed that female leaders tended to be more transformational and engage more in contingent reward behavior than more male leaders.
In another research by (Eagly, Makhijani & Klonsky 1992) findings showed that female managers were devalued compared to men when they led in a masculine manner, worked in masculine roles and masculine industries and when they were evaluated by men. These findings stress the discrimination that female leaders have for a long time encountered and continue to face in many countries and organizations. In another study by (Eagly, Karau & Makhijani 1995) demonstrated that female and male leaders tend to be more effective in gender congruent roles, that is, female leaders were found to be less effective than men in military positions but more effective in for example, teaching careers.
In many countries, there are constraints identified in the organizations that women face including: Aspiring women may not have the level of education necessary for entry-level in leadership positions in the public sector, corruption, gender stereotypes, dual work-family roles, poverty, women violence, women’s health and unequal treatment of women among others.
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